They are silvery, white, and hard metals. The first member , Be, forms covalent compounds. Alkaline earth metals have relatively low ionization energies for their first two electrons; because of this, alkaline earth metals exist with a 2+ charge most of the time. Beryllium and magnesium atoms are smaller in size and their electrons are strongly held by the nucleus. Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals. The alkaline earths have two electrons in the outer shell. They have two outer valence electrons which they readily lose. Together with hydrogen they constitute group 1, which lies in the s-block of the periodic table. The second ionization enthalpies of the elements of group 1 are higher than those of elements of group 2. Loading image • • • Previous. Mg also shows some tendency for covalency. The elements have very similar properties: they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure.. On moving down the group, ionization enthalpy values go on decreasing because of the increase in atomic size due to addition of the new shells and screening effect of the electrons in the inner shell which overweigh the effect of increased nuclear charge. Other important minerals of calcium are fluorite or fluorspar CaF2, gypsum CaSO4.2 H2O and anhydrite CaSO4. Because of this reason ,these metals are less soft then alkali metals. They have a silvery luster. Down the group , there is no regular trend in their melting and boiling point. Group 2: the alkaline earth metals Physical Properties Metals Halides, oxides, hydroxides, salts of oxoacids Complex ions in aqueous solution Complexes with … Thus, these elements show strong electropositive or metallic character. Chemical Properties of Alkali Metals. Here, we will talk about the different compounds of alkali metals and their general characteristics. Alkaline earth metals uniformly show an oxidation state of +2. Properties of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals Samantha Getsin and Mitashee Das Alkaline Earth Metals Physical Properties Physical Properties Second-most reactive metals: can easily lose the two valence electrons due to low ionization energy React with hydrogen to form metallic Consequently the electropositive or metallic character increases. Sections below cover the trends in atomic radius, first ionization energy, electronegativity, and physical properties. Alkaline earth metal prefer to form divalent ions rather than monovalent ions. Alkaline earth metals are also highly reactive and hence do not occur in the free state but are widely distributed in nature in the combined state as silicates, carbonates, sulphates and phosphate. The alkaline earth metals have fairly low ionization enthalpies though greater than those of the corresponding elements of group 1 and these decreases down the group. The tendency to form ionic compounds increases down the group because ionization enthalpy decreases. Alkali metals are softer when compared to alkaline earth metals. However, there are certain physical properties that make them different from other elements. Physical properties. With regard to the valency of these metals, all … Since the atoms of the alkaline earth metals have smaller size and higher ionization enthalpies as compared to corresponding alkali metals, their tendency to lose valence electrons is lesser than those of alkali metals. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Alkaline Earth Metals Reactions, Uses, Properties The general electron configuration of alkaline metals is [noble gas] ns 2 where n represents the valence shell. Therefore, they can easily lose these two electrons to form divalent cation. Unlike other metals, the elements of the alkali metal group are soft substances and can be cut with a knife. The decrease in density from Be to C may be due to decrease in packing of atoms in their solid lattice. They are less electropositive or metallic than the alkali metal. They have a gray-white lustre when freshly cut but tarnish readily in air, particularly the heavier members of the group. Therefore, they can easily lose these two electrons to form divalent cation. Alkaline earth metal prefer to form divalent ions rather than monovalent ions Most of their typical compounds are therefore ionic: salts in which the metal occurs as the cation M 2+, where M represents any Group 2 atom. Different alkali metals While most of the alkali metals are silver in colour caesium actually has a gold tint Francium is the only radioactive alkali metal All alkali metals have a … Therefore, removal of second electron in case of alkaline earth metals requires much less energy than that in case of alkali metals. Alkaline earth metals in their pure forms are generally shiny and silvery. The melting points (mp) and boiling points … On moving down the group, the atomic and ionic radii increases due to addition of an extra shell of electrons in each succeeding element and the increasing screening effect. What are the similar properties of alkaline earth metals? Reason:  The second electron in case of alkali metal is to be removed from a cation which has already acquired the stable noble gas configuration whereas in case of alkaline earth metal, the second electron is to be removed from a cation which is yet to acquire the stable noble gas configuration. The group 2 of the periodic table consist of 6 elements .These are Beryllium (Be), magnesium(Mg), Calcium (Ca), strontium(Sr),  barium(Ba), radium (Ra). Next. Alkaline Earth (Group II) Trends Group 2: General Properties The elements in the group include beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). The compounds of alkaline earth metals are more extensively hydrated than those of alkali metals. The lanthanides (rare earth) and actinides are also transition metals. Alkaline earths have low electron affinities and low electronegativities. Slurried or finely divided barium have been known to react with explosive force when mixed with such halogenated hydrocarbons as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorotrifluoroethane, fluorotrichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, etc. Alkaline-earth metal - Alkaline-earth metal - Physical and chemical behaviour: The alkaline-earth elements are highly metallic and are good conductors of electricity. Alkaline earth metals and alloys containing alkaline earth metals regarded as reducing agents. Reason: Due to low ionisation energies, the alkaline earth metals have a strong tendency to lose both the valence electrons to form dipositive cations. The density of these metal first decreases from Be to Ca and then increases from Ca to Ba. NIOS Senior Secondary Notes. Hydrides: Alkali metals react with hydrogen at higher temperatures to form metallic hydrides. They rarely occur in their pure form, however, because they are very reactive. Their compounds are less ionic because their ionization enthalpies are higher than those of the corresponding alkali metals. Like alkali metal salts, alkaline earth metal salts also impart a characteristic colour to the flame. In their pure state, all of these elements tend to have a shiny, metallic appearance. The name alkaline earth was given since the oxides are alkaline in nature and remain unaffected by heat or fire and exist in Earth’s crust. The alkaline earth metals (beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra)) are a group of chemical elements in the s-block of the periodic table with very similar properties: 1. shiny 2. silvery-white 3. somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure 4. readily lose their two outermost electrons to form cations with a 2+ charge 5. low densities 6. low melting points 7. low boiling poi… Filed Under: Chemistry, Class 11, s-Block Elements Tagged With: Alkaline earth metals form dipositive ions, atomic radii of group 2, density of group 2 elements, electronic configuration of group 2, flame colouration of group 2 elements, group 2 elements are called alkaline earth metals, hydration enthalpy of group 2, ionization enthalpy of group 2, melting and boiling point of group 2, metallic character of group 2 elements, nature of bonds formed. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Alkali metals group [Group 1A] Alkali metals group is located on the maximum left side of the modern periodic table.It is the first group of s-block, Despite the presence of hydrogen at the top of the group (1A), It is not one of the alkali metals but it is one of the nonmetals because it has a small atomic size and it is a gas.. General properties of alkali metals The hydration enthalpies of alkaline earth metal ions decreases as the size of the metal ion increases down the group i.e. Beryllium ,however, form covalent compounds because it has smaller size and high ionization enthalpy. Reason: Due to smaller size of the cation and greater number of valence electrons, the metallic bonding in alkaline earth metal is stronger as compared to alkali metal. The basic metals are similar to transition metals but tend to be softer and to hint at nonmetallic properties. As a result ,their atomic and ionic radii are smaller than those of the corresponding alkali metals. (3) The existence of divalent ions in the aqueous solution is due to greater enthalpy of hydration of the divalent ions which counterbalance the higher value of second ionization enthalpy. Their melting and boiling points are higher compared to alkali metals. Calcium is the fifth most abundant element by weight found in the earth crust.It mainly  occurs as CaCO3 in form of limestone, marble and chalk. Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals Down the column, nuclear charge increases and a new orbital is added to each alkaline earth atom. The third ionization enthalpy of magnesium will be very high because now the electron has to be removed from the stable noble gas configuration. She has started this educational website with the mindset of spreading Free Education to everyone. Atomic and ionic radii of alkaline earth metals are fairly large though smaller than the corresponding alkali metals and these increases down the group. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. As with the alkali metals, the properties depend on the ease with which electrons are lost. As a result , a larger amount of lattice enthalpy is released during the formation of compounds containing M2+ ions than in the formation of compounds containing M+ ions. Group 2 Elements: The Alkaline Earth Metals Expand/collapse global location Group 2: Physical Properties of Alkali Earth Metals Last updated; Save as PDF Page ID 3675; Contributed by Jim Clark; Former Head of Chemistry and Head of Science at Truro School in Cornwall; Contributors and Attributions; This page explores the trends in some atomic and physical properties of the Group 2 … They are malleable and ductile but very less when compared to alkali metals. The densities of alkali metals are much lower when compared to other metals. These metals are highly electropositive and form compounds which are ionic in nature. The alkaline earth metals are highly electropositive and hence metallic and their electropositive or metallic character increases down the group. Legal. Alkaline earth metals uniformly show an oxidation state of +2. The alkaline earth metals (beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra)) are a group of chemical elements in the s-block of the periodic table with very similar properties: shiny; silvery-white; somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure Beryllium is found in small quantities as silicate minerals, beryl Be3Al2Si6O8 and phenacite Be2SiO4. Properties of the Alkaline Earth Metals . It is this greater lattice enthalpy of M2+ ions  which more than compensates for the higher second ionization enthalpy thereby making M2+ ions more stable than M+ ions. As a result , a larger amount of lattice enthalpy is released during the formation of compounds containing M. Like alkali metals, alkaline earth metals form ionic compounds which are less ionic than the corresponding alkali metal compounds. This page explores the trends in some atomic and physical properties of the Group 2 elements: beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium. The alkali metals: are soft (they can be cut with a knife) have relatively low melting points (2) The existence of divalent ions in the solid state is due to the reason that divalent cations due to smaller size and higher charge form stronger lattices then monovalent cations. Some physical properties and their trends is given in table: Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals. Required fields are marked *, Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals, Beryllium is found in small quantities as silicate minerals, beryl Be, Calcium is the fifth most abundant element by weight found in the earth crust.It mainly  occurs as CaCO, The hydration enthalpies of alkaline earth metal ions decreases as the size of the metal ion increases down the group i.e. So, group IIA elements are also termed as alkaline earth metals. They have smaller atomic radii than the … Reason: They form ionic compounds because they have low ionization enthalpies. They need large amount of energy for excitation of electrons to higher energy levels which is not available in the bunsen flame. The alkaline earths possess many of the characteristic properties of metals. (1) The divalent cation of alkaline earth metal acquire stable inert gas configuration. Alkaline earth metals have two electrons in their outermost electron layer, which take relatively little energy to remove. Get More on NIOS Senior Secondary Notes NIOS Notes. Be2+ > Mg2+ >Ca2+ > Sr2+ > Ba2+. General Characteristics of Compounds of Alkaline Earth Metals Physical Characteristics or Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals. Atomic and Ionic Radii As with the alkali metals of Group 1 (Ia), the atoms of the alkaline-earth metals easily lose electrons to become positive ions (cations). It is this higher enthalpy of hydration which more than compensates for the higher value of second ionisation enthalpy . Have questions or comments? Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals. Alkaline earth metals and alloys containing alkaline earth metals regarded as reducing agents. It also occurs to about 0.13% in sea water as chloride and sulphate. Alkaline earth metals are less reactive than alkali metals. The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). 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